# Section 3.1 - Basic Graphs and Transformations

Section Objectives

1. Develop a familiarity with the graphs of basic functions (Toolbox Functions).
2. Apply the transformations (shifts, reflections, stretches, and compressions) to basic graphs to obtain more general graphs.
3. Determine the transformations that result in a given graph.

### Summary of the Toolbox Functions

Before we study the graphs of general functions, we must build up a library, or toolbox, of basic functions and their graphs. The "toolbox functions" are the constant functions, the linear functions, the squaring and cubing functions (eventually general power functions), the square and cube root functions (eventually $n$-th roots), and the absolute value function. We must become familiar with the following characteristics of these functions and their graphs:

• Domain
• Range
• Interesting features (vertices, flat spots, opens up/down, asymptotes, intercepts, etc.)
• Symmetry
• End (long-term) behavior
• Increasing/Decreasing
• Extreme values

#### Examples

• Discuss the characteristics of each of the toolbox functions.

### Transformations

This table summarizes typical transformations of a given function/graph.

#### Examples

• Describe, then sketch, the graph of $f(x) =x^2-4$.

• Describe the graph of $g(x)=(x+1)^2-4$.

• Describe the graph of $y=2\sqrt{x}$ . How about $y=-2\sqrt{x}$?

Important idea: When a function is transformed, many of its special features, such as domain, range, and intervals on which it is increasing/decreasing, change in corresponding ways.

• Discuss the features of the function $g(x)=-2(x+3)^2-5$. Domain? Range? Vertex?